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Science And Development Of Muscle Hypertrophy =LINK=

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The pre-exhaustion technique is commonly used by bodybuilders seeking to enhance the muscle growth of target muscles. The rationale for this technique is that performing a single-joint exercise first fatigues the agonist in isolation, thereby placing greater stress on the agonist and increasing its activation during multi-joint exercise and potentiating its hypertrophy [73]. Another variation is the reverse pre-exhaustion (e.g., triceps pushdown before the bench press), and the justification for this approach is that the fatigued synergist contributes less to the subsequent multi-joint exercise, thereby placing greater stress on the agonist group [74]. However, a study by Golas et al. [75] partially disagreed with this statement as the results indicated that a pre-exhaustion exercise (incline dumbbell fly) did not affect the pectoralis major activity during the flat bench press exercise at 95% 1RM. Despite that, pre-exhaustion of the synergist muscles (triceps brachii and anterior deltoid before the bench press) led to their higher activation during the multi-joint movement (bench press) as compared to the baseline [75]. Furthermore, results of a study by Soares et al. [50] suggested that pre-exhaustion (triceps pushdown followed by the bench press) decreased the maximal number of repetitions performed during a set to volitional fatigue.

The quest to increase lean body mass is widely pursued by those who lift weights. Research is lacking, however, as to the best approach for maximizing exercise-induced muscle growth. Bodybuilders generally train with moderate loads and fairly short rest intervals that induce high amounts of metabolic stress. Powerlifters, on the other hand, routinely train with high-intensity loads and lengthy rest periods between sets. Although both groups are known to display impressive muscularity, it is not clear which method is superior for hypertrophic gains. It has been shown that many factors mediate the hypertrophic process and that mechanical tension, muscle damage, and metabolic stress all can play a role in exercise-induced muscle growth. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to extensively review the literature as to the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to exercise training and (b) to draw conclusions from the research as to the optimal protocol for maximizing muscle growth.

Written by Brad Schoenfeld, PhD, a leading authority on muscle hypertrophy, Science and Development of Muscle Hypertrophy provides strength and conditioning professionals, researchers, and instructors with a definitive resource for information regarding muscle hypertrophy.

Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a range of training programs, this text allows readers to understand and apply the specific responses and mechanisms that promote optimal muscle hypertrophy in their athletes and clients. It explores how genetic background, age, sex, and other factors have been shown to mediate the hypertrophic response to exercise, affecting both the rate and the total gain in lean muscle mass. Sample programs in the text show how to design a three- or four-day-per-week undulating periodized program and a modified linear periodized program for maximizing muscular development.

Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy is a rare condition characterized by reduced body fat and increased muscle size. Affected individuals have up to twice the usual amount of muscle mass in their bodies. They also tend to have increased muscle strength. Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy is not known to cause any medical problems, and affected individuals are intellectually normal.

Variants (also known as mutations) in the MSTN gene cause myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy. The MSTN gene provides instructions for making a protein called myostatin, which is active in muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles) both before and after birth. This protein normally limits muscle growth, ensuring that muscles d


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